Most of us who follow the mysteries are aware that huge numbers of carcasses of extinct megafauna, notably mammoths, have been found preserved in the permafrost of Siberia — the victims, it has been suggested, of some great cataclysm near the end of the last Ice Age. Most of us are also probably aware that similar claims have been made for Alaska; however, the evidence there has received less attention. It is this mystery, the so-called terminal Ice Age cataclysm and megafaunal extinctions of Alaska, that I want to take a look at here — hopefully with your help.
It was handwritten in crabbed penmanship so that it was very difficult to read. Nevertheless, I tried to make it out just in case it might prove to be important. In the first sentence, he told me he was majoring in English Literature, but felt he needed to teach me science. I sighed a bit, for I knew very few English Lit majors who are equipped to teach me science, but I am very aware of the vast state of my ignorance and I am prepared to learn as much as I can from anyone, however low on the social scale, so I read on.
It seemed that in one of my innumerable essays, here and elsewhere, I had expressed a certain gladness at living in a century in which we finally got the basis of the Universe straight.
We also know the basic rules governing the subatomic particles and their interrelationships, since these are very neatly described by the quantum theory worked out between and These are all twentieth-century discoveries, you see.
The young specialist in English Lit, having quoted me, went on to lecture me severely on the fact that in every century people have thought they understood the Universe at last, and in every century they were proven to be wrong.
It follows that the one thing we can say about out modern "knowledge" is that it is wrong. The young man then quoted with approval what Socrates had said on learning that the Delphic oracle had proclaimed him the wisest man in Greece.
Alas, none of this was new to me. There is very little that is new to me; I wish my corresponders would realize this. This particular thesis was addressed to me a quarter of a century ago by John Campbell, who specialized in irritating me. He also told me that all theories are proven wrong in time.
My answer to him was, "John, when people thought the Earth was flat, they were wrong. When people thought the Earth was spherical, they were wrong.
But if you think that thinking the Earth is spherical is just as wrong as thinking the Earth is flat, then your view is wronger than both of them put together.
It seems to me that right and wrong are fuzzy concepts, and I will devote this essay to an explanation of why I think so. First, let me dispose of Socrates because I am sick and tired of this pretense that knowing you know nothing is a mark of wisdom.
No one knows nothing. In a matter of days, babies learn to recognize their mothers. Socrates would agree, of course, and explain that knowledge of trivia is not what he means.
He means that in the great abstractions over which human beings debate, one should start without preconceived, unexamined notions, and that he alone knew this. What an enormously arrogant claim! In his discussions of such matters as "What is justice?
This is called "Socratic irony," for Socrates knew very well that he knew a great deal more than the poor souls he was picking on. By pretending ignorance, Socrates lured others into propounding their views on such abstractions.
Now where do we get the notion that "right" and "wrong" are absolutes? It seems to me that this arises in the early grades, when children who know very little are taught by teachers who know very little more.
Young children learn spelling and arithmetic, for instance, and here we tumble into apparent absolutes. How do you spell "sugar? Anything else is wrong. The answer is 4. Having exact answers, and having absolute rights and wrongs, minimizes the necessity of thinking, and that pleases both students and teachers.
For that reason, students and teachers alike prefer short-answer tests to essay tests; multiple-choice over blank short-answer tests; and true-false tests over multiple-choice.
They are merely a test of the efficiency of his ability to memorize. You can see what I mean as soon as you admit that right and wrong are relative. Both are wrong, but is there any doubt that Alice is wronger than Genevieve?
Or suppose you spell "sugar": Suppose then the test question was: Naturally, the student would have to do a lot of thinking and, in the end, exhibit how much or how little he knows.
The teacher would also have to do a lot of thinking in the attempt to evaluate how much or how little the student knows.Free Evolution papers, essays, and research papers. Primates and Evolution - What makes a primate a primate.
A primate is defined by its many incredible features. "The Gold-Bug" is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe published in The plot follows William Legrand, who was bitten by a gold-colored bug.
His servant Jupiter fears that Legrand is going insane and goes to Legrand's friend, an unnamed narrator, who agrees to visit his old friend. Strata, historically the plural of stratum, is occasionally used as a singular: The lowest economic strata consists of the permanently unemployable.
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Briefly noted: National Geographic has built a web interface that allows anyone to find any quad in the United States, and then download and print it.
During past decades, these quads (topographic maps) were printed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) on giant bus-sized presses. But now. Philosophy of Science. A few miles farther on, we came to a big, gravelly roadcut that looked like an ashfall, a mudflow, glacial till, and fresh oatmeal, imperfectly blended.
"I don't know what this glop is," [Kenneth Deffeyes] said, in final capitulation.