In ancient societies, for example China, censorship was considered a legitimate instrument for regulating the moral and political life of the population Censorship is ancient and global. The origin of the term censor can be traced to the office of censor established in Rome in BC. In Rome as in ancient Greece, the ideal of good governance included shaping the character of the people.
Information about the sex lives of the Romans is scattered in historiographyoratoryphilosophy, and writings on medicineagricultureand other technical topics.
Ovid lists a number of writers known for salacious material whose works are now lost. Ovid calls the book a collection of misdeeds criminaand says the narrative was laced with dirty jokes. Just as venerable figures of men, painted by the hand of an artist, are resplendent in our houses, so too there is a small painting tabella  in some spot which depicts various couplings and sexual positions: In the 3rd century, celibacy had become an ideal among the growing number of Christians, and Church Fathers such as Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria debated whether even marital sex should be permitted for procreation.
The sexuality of martyrology focuses on tests against the Christian's chastity  and sexual torture; Christian women are more often than men subjected to sexual mutilation, in particular of the breasts.
Sexuality was an important category of Roman religious thought. The Dii Consentes were a council of deities in male—female pairs, to some extent Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of the Greeks.
Cicero held that the desire libido to procreate was "the seedbed of the republic", as it was the cause for the first form of social institution, marriage. Marriage produced children and in turn a "house" domus for family unity that was the building block of urban life.
The February Lupercaliacelebrated as late as the 5th century of the Christian eraincluded an archaic fertility rite. The Floralia featured nude dancing. At certain religious festivals throughout April, prostitutes participated or were officially recognized.
The iconography links deities of love and desire with military success and religious authority; Sulla adopted the title Epaphroditus, "Aphrodite's own", before he became a dictator. The god Liber understood as the "Free One" oversaw physiological responses during sexual intercourse.
When a male assumed the toga virilis"toga of manhood," Liber became his patron ; according to the love poets, he left behind the innocent modesty pudor of childhood and acquired the sexual freedom libertas to begin his course of love.
Roman art and literature continued the Hellenistic treatment of mythological figures having sex as humanly erotic and at times humorous, often removed from the religious dimension. Incestum[ edit ] A Vestal Incestum that which is "not castum" is an act that violates religious purity,  perhaps synonymous with that which is nefasreligiously impermissible.
A Vestal's loss of castitas ruptured Rome's treaty with the gods pax deorum and was typically accompanied by the observation of bad omens prodigia. Prosecutions for incestum involving a Vestal often coincide with political unrest, and some charges of incestum seem politically motivated: When Clodius Pulcher dressed as a woman and intruded on the all-female rites of the Bona Deahe was charged with incestum.
In early Rome, stuprum was a disgraceful act in general, or any public disgrace, including but not limited to illicit sex. Raptio The English word "rape" derives ultimately from the Latin verb rapio, rapere, raptus, "to snatch, carry away, abduct" the words rapt, rapture, and raptor still have the same meaning.
In Roman law, raptus or raptio meant primarily kidnapping or abduction;  the mythological "rape" of the Sabine women is a form of bride abduction in which sexual violation is a secondary issue.
Before the word "rape" acquired its modern strictly sexual meaning, the verb meant simply to seize something or someone by force; this usage persisted at least into the early 19th century.
The "abduction" of an unmarried girl from her father's household in some circumstances was a matter of the couple eloping without her father's permission to marry. Rape in the English sense was more often expressed as stuprum committed through violence or coercion cum vi or per vim.
As laws pertaining to violence were codified toward the end of the Republic, raptus ad stuprum, "abduction for the purpose of committing a sex crime", emerged as a legal distinction.
Healing and magic[ edit ] Votive offerings from Pompeii representing breasts, penises, and a uterus Divine aid might be sought in private religious rituals along with medical treatments to enhance or block fertility, or to cure diseases of the reproductive organs. Votive offerings vota ; compare ex-voto in the form of breasts and penises have been found at healing sanctuaries.
A private ritual under some circumstances might be considered "magic", an indistinct category in antiquity. In his Book 33 De medicamentis, Marcellus of Bordeauxa contemporary of Ausonius,  collected more than 70 sexually related treatments—for growths and lesions on the testicles and penis, undescended testicleserectile dysfunctionhydrocele"creating a eunuch without surgery",  ensuring a woman's fidelity, and compelling or diminishing a man's desire—some of which involve ritual procedures: Keep the tail closed up in the palm of the same hand until it dies and touch the woman and her private parts when you have intercourse with her.
Its root, pounded to a paste and drunk in vinegar for ten consecutive days, has the astonishing effect of turning a boy into a eunuch.
Then join the sapling together again and seal it with cow manure and other dressings, so that the parts that were split may intermingle within themselves more easily.
The speed with which the sapling grows together and its scar forms will determine how quickly the swollen veins of the boy will return to health. The extent to which theorizing about sex actually affected behavior is debatable, even among those who were attentive to the philosophical and medical writings that presented such views.
This elite discourse, while often deliberately critical of common or typical behaviors, at the same time cannot be assumed to exclude values broadly held within the society.
Epicurean sexuality[ edit ] "Nor does he who avoids love lack the fruit of Venus but rather chooses goods which are without a penalty; for certainly the pleasure from this is more pure for the healthy than for the wretched.
For indeed, at the very moment of possession, the hot passion of lovers fluctuates with uncertain wanderings and they are undecided what to enjoy first with eyes and hands. They tightly press what they have sought and cause bodily pain, and often drive their teeth into little lips and give crushing kisses, because the pleasure is not pure and there are goads underneath which prod them to hurt that very thing, whatever it is, from which those [torments] of frenzy spring.
Yeatsdescribing the translation by Drydencalled it "the finest description of sexual intercourse ever written. His didactic poem De rerum natura is a presentation of Epicurean philosophy within the Ennian tradition of Latin poetry. Epicureanism is both materialist and hedonic.Homosexuality in ancient Rome often differs markedly from the contemporary West.
Latin lacks words that would precisely translate "homosexual" and "heterosexual". The primary dichotomy of ancient Roman sexuality was active/dominant/masculine and passive/submissive/feminine. Roman society was patriarchal, and the freeborn male citizen possessed political liberty (libertas) and the right to rule.
Comparing Ancient Rome and China Han Dynasty Disunity Republic Empire Expansion BCE Ancient Rome Connections contact across long distances cultural change BCE CE Globalization of agricultural civilization Third Wave Civilizations Second Wave Civilizations Rome Compare and Contrast IFPY challenges .
Sexuality in ancient Rome, and more broadly, sexual attitudes and behaviors in ancient Rome, are indicated by Roman art, literature and inscriptions, and to a lesser extent by archaeological remains such as erotic artifacts and plombier-nemours.com has sometimes been assumed that "unlimited sexual license" was characteristic of ancient Rome; Verstraete and Provençal express the opinion that this.
Civilizations of Ancient China and East Asia - The main major theme of module three is the development in China and East Asia. The chapters cover the social, . Compare and Contrast Classical World Essay Rome and China were two of the most powerful civilizations in classical Europe and Asia and they lasted for hundreds of years.
They controlled trade in the silk road, provided many contributions to modern life, and the classical world.
Ancient Greece and Ancient China have many similarities and differences. A similarity between the two ancient civilizations is how they socially treated their women, while a difference is how their economy was handled due to the different trade systems.