Getty French soldiers at the Battle of Verdun. At the start of the opposing forces are fighting a frustrating war of attrition on the Western Front. The Germans plan an offensive on a series of forts around the town of Verdun, believing the French will throw huge resources into defending it only to be annihilated.
April The first hundred years of the Consumer Price Index: In attempting to satisfy their disparate needs, the Bureau of Labor Statistics frequently is challenged to produce a statistic that is both timely and accurate.
This technical and political history explains both how and why the Bureau has come to produce a family of Consumer Price Indexes to address the challenge.
Of all the economic statistics produced by the U. Numerous government programs, such as Social Security benefits, are adjusted each year on the basis of changes to the CPI. Countless contracts—whether business agreements, government obligations, leases, or court orders—also utilize the CPI, to adjust the dollar amounts associated with these settlements.
For some, the CPI seems to be a rather difficult and abstract thing to understand. Others view the index with suspicion, a statistic produced by the recondite, esoteric labors of government economists and statisticians. The truth, however, is that the ideas, history, and workings of the CPI are neither too difficult nor too secretive for the layperson to comprehend.
This article presents a history of the creation and evolution of the CPI: Rather, events of the time almost always demanded active engagement from the Bureau, and input from business groups, unions, and the public has influenced the evolution of the CPI in important ways.
For those who are already knowledgeable about current CPI methods, the article recounts the backdrop to recent and past methodological decisions, providing the why along with the how pertaining to those decisions.
Interweaving the technical history of the CPI with the context of the broader political economy elucidates a far more compelling account than does covering the methodological history in isolation.
The article tells the history of the CPI in seven short, self-contained minihistories. The story begins in the late 19th century, proceeds through World War I, the New Deal, World War II, the postwar era, and the s and s, and closes with events that took place from the s through Throughout it all, the Bureau is seen to be a responsive, often proactive, sometimes passive agency that established and still holds forth the CPI as a vital, evolving statistic.
The data were estimated to go back to ; an index for the United States was first published in The fact that the Bureau was able to estimate data back to suggests that the collection of data on retail prices and consumer expenditures began far earlier than the publication of information on shipbuilding and industrial centers in At the time, the federal government was accumulating large budget surpluses, and both Democrats and Republicans identified tariff policy as the preferred tool for reducing the surpluses.
Tariffs had been set particularly high to pay off the large debt that accrued during the Civil War. Democrats proposed reducing tariff rates in order to reduce tariff revenue, whereas Republicans postulated that increasing tariff rates would restrict imports, thereby causing a reduction in tariff revenue.
Congressional Republicans eventually won the debate and passed the Tariff Act ofcommonly called the McKinley Tariff, which increased the average tariff level from 38 percent to Concerned with the effect that this new tariff law would have on the cost of production in key industrial sectors, Congress requested the Bureau of Labor to conduct studies on wages, prices, and hours of work in the iron and steel, coal, textile, and glass industries.Which was a cause of the Hundred Years' War?
A. France refused to allow English merchant ships to dock in French ports. B. The French king tried to assassinate the English king. C. The English king made claims to the French throne. D. England accused French monks of trying to convert English citizens/5(10).
Nov 12, · Overview; Overview and History The 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month years ago marked the end of World War One. a day of memory every hundred years or so for actually. Star Wars: Droids (–), which aired for one season on ABC, follows the adventures of the droids C-3PO and R2-D2, 15 years before the events of the film Star Wars.
   Its sister series Star Wars: Ewoks (–) features the adventures of the Ewoks before Return of the Jedi and the Ewok movies.
This seventh volume of the Journal of Medieval Military History has a particular focus on western Europe in the late middle ages, and specifically the Hundred Years War; however, the breadth and diversity of approaches found in the modern study of medieva. An overview of the Battle of Castillon, the last conflict of the Hundred Years’ War Medieval History.
The Battle of Castillon, considered to be the last battle of the Hundred Years’ War, was fought between France and England. After more than a century of conflict, by the end of the French under King Charles VII had captured almost all. 'A war to end all wars' The First World War was the first truly global conflict – the battle raged not just in the trenches of the Western Front but in Africa, the Middle East and Asia.