Constitution ratified New Hampshire becomes the ninth and last necessary state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, thereby making the document the law of the land.
Hamilton The Establishment Clause: Hamilton An accurate recounting of history is necessary to appreciate the need for disestablishment and a separation between church and state. The religiosity of the generation that framed the Constitution and the Bill of Rights of which the First Amendment is the first as a result of historical accident, not the preference for religious liberty over any other right has been overstated.
In reality, many of the Framers and the most influential men of that generation rarely attended church, were often Deist rather than Christian, and had a healthy understanding of the potential for religious tyranny. This latter concern is to be expected as European history was awash with executions of religious heretics: Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and Muslim.
Three of the most influential men in the Framing era provide valuable insights into the mindset at the time: Franklin saw a pattern: If we look back into history for the character of the present sects in Christianity, we shall find few that have not in their turns been persecutors, and complainers of persecution.
The primitive Christians thought persecution extremely wrong in the Pagans, but practiced it on one another. The first Protestants of the Church of England blamed persecution in the Romish Church, but practiced it upon the Puritans.
These found it wrong in the Bishops, but fell into the same practice themselves both here [England] and in New England. The father of the Constitution and primary drafter of the First Amendment, James Madison, in his most important document on the topic, Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessmentsstated: During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial.
What have been its fruits? More or less in all places, pride and indolence in the Clergy, ignorance and servility in the laity, in both, superstition, bigotry and persecution. What influence, in fact, have ecclesiastical establishments had on society? In some instances they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny on the ruins of the Civil authority; in many instances they have been seen upholding the thrones of political tyranny; in no instance have they been the guardians of the liberties of the people.
Two years later, John Adams described the states as having been derived from reason, not religious belief: It will never be pretended that any persons employed in that service had any interviews with the gods, or were in any degree under the influence of Heaven, any more than those at work upon ships or houses, or laboring in merchandise or agriculture; it will forever be acknowledged that these governments were contrived merely by the use of reason and the senses.
Thirteen governments [of the original states] thus founded on the natural authority of the people alone, without a pretence of miracle or mystery, which are destined to spread over the northern part of that whole quarter of the globe, are a great point gained in favor of the rights of mankind.
Massachusetts and Pennsylvania are examples of early discord.The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the United States. Empowered with the sovereign authority of the people by the framers and the consent of the legislatures of.
The meaning of the Ninth Amendment is elusive, but some persons (including Justice Goldberg in his Griswold concurrence) have interpreted the Ninth Amendment as justification for broadly reading the Bill of Rights to protect privacy in ways not specifically provided in the first eight amendments.
"Bill of Rights - Although 12 amendments were originally proposed, the 10 that were ratified became the Bill of Rights in They defined citizens' rights in relation to the newly established government under the Constitution." "Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, , as one of the Reconstruction plombier-nemours.comly one of the most consequential amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War.
Each state has its own constitution that is the highest law for the state — but even then, the United States Constitution is higher. Over time, some things have been added to the Constitution. Called "amendments," these add-ons list some of the rights of the people. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Notes for this amendment: Proposed 9/25/