A biography of maria montessori an educational theorist

Self-Perfection Work also described as "purposeful activity" In the Montessori approach, these human tendencies are seen as driving behavior in every stage of development, and education should respond to and facilitate their expression. Montessori education involves free activity within a "prepared environment", meaning an educational environment tailored to basic human characteristics, to the specific characteristics of children at different ages, and to the individual personalities of each child. In addition to offering access to the Montessori materials appropriate to the age of the children, the environment should exhibit the following characteristics: She saw different characteristics, learning modes, and developmental imperatives active in each of these planes, and called for educational approaches specific to each period.

A biography of maria montessori an educational theorist

Maria Montessori Italian educator and physician. Montessori developed a revolutionary method of early childhood education that continues to influence many school programs around the world.

The first woman in Italy to earn a medical degree, Montessori was a practicing physician working with developmentally disabled children when she discovered that these children were educable—a discovery that was in direct contrast to the prevailing notion that mentally retarded children should be confined to institutions for life.

Further research with nondisabled children showed that Montessori's theories were applicable across the curriculum.

A well-known pacifist, Montessori believed that a link existed between world peace and proper childhood education and regularly addressed international organizations on the subject. Her work in this area led to nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize in, and The first woman ever admitted to the school of medicine at the University of Rome, in Montessori became the first woman in Italy to graduate with a medical degree.

She practiced medicine from toat the same time lecturing regularly at the Regio istituto superiore di Magistero Femminile, the Scuola magistrale Ortofrenica, and the University of Rome. An early feminist, Montessori began representing Italian women at women's conferences around the world shortly after obtaining her medical degree.

She also began to treat mentally retarded children. She soon came to believe that, with proper instruction, they could be successfully educated according to their individual abilities, rather than spending their entire lives committed to mental institutions, as was the standard of the time.

As she further developed her theories, Montessori decided to test her method on nondisabled children. By Montessori's schools were considered so successful that educators around the world began to adopt her methods and open Montessori-style schools in their own countries.

Montessori societies arose, and Montessori herself led congresses throughout Europe, India, and the United States to teach her method.

Already an internationally respected figure, Montessori earned further acclaim in the s, when she began to address organizations such as the League of Nations, the International Peace Congress, the World Fellowship of Faiths, and UNESCO about the connection between education that focused on individual social and psychological needs and the development of a society based on peace and justice.

For her work in the peace movement, Montessori was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize three times. She died in the Netherlands inwhile at a conference teaching her method. Major Works Montessori's theories about child education are most thoroughly detailed in her book Metodo della pedagogica scientifica applicata all' educazione infantile nelle case dei bambini The Montessori Method;in which she discussed the teaching method used first at her Case dei Bambini and later at Montessori schools around the world.

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Accordingly, Montessori advocated classrooms with child-sized furniture and teachers who provided the basic tools for learning and little discipline, with the goal of encouraging children to be self-guiding and self-disciplined.

In and Montessori published the two volume The Advanced Montessori Method, based on her further research into the subject. The Secret of Childhood is a practical guidebook to understanding the educational needs of children aimed primarily at parents.

La mente del bambino The Absorbent Mind; is a collection of lectures Montessori delivered at a conference in Ahmedabad, India, exploring her theory that children move through certain periods where they are particularly open to learning certain things.

Critical Reception By the time she published The Montessori Method, Montessori had become a revered figure in the field of education, and her theories are still employed at Montessori schools around the world.

She was not, however, without detractors.

Montessori education - Wikipedia

On her first visit to the United States inshe was very well received. But interest in her method diminished after a few years and was not revived until the s. Some critics speculate that, in the United States, Montessori and her ideas fell victim to the then-popular eugenics movement, which held that certain qualities such as mental illness and criminality were dependent on genetic rather than environmental factors, and that undesirable traits were far more common in certain ethnic groups, particularly southern Europeans.

As an Italian—and an unmarried professional woman with a child—Montessori, commentators charge, may have appeared to pose a threat to the established belief that most women, immigrants, and especially the disabled could not and should not be educated.

A biography of maria montessori an educational theorist

But as attitudes evolved, the Montessori method was increasingly adopted in the United States, and, although debate over its efficacy continues, it is widely considered a valid and successful educational theory.Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, (born Jan. 12, , Zürich—died Feb. 17, , Brugg, Switz.), Swiss educational reformer, who advocated education of the poor and emphasized teaching methods designed to strengthen the student’s own abilities.

Pestalozzi’s method became widely accepted, and most of his principles have been absorbed into modern elementary education. Maria Montessori, (born August 31, , Chiaravalle, near Ancona, Italy—died May 6, , Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands), Italian educator and originator of the educational system that bears her name.

Maria Montessori Italian educator and physician. Montessori developed a revolutionary method of early childhood education that continues to influence many school programs around the world.

Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (Italian pronunciation: [maˈriːa montesˈsɔːri]; August 31, – May 6, ) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific plombier-nemours.com an early age, Montessori broke gender barriers and expectations when she enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with.

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Maria Montessori was born in the town of Chiaravalle, Italy on August 31, Though most of the information on Maria's childhood seems to be uncertain, with disagreeing dates, contradictions and omissions, I found a majority of the information about her childhood in Maria Montessori: A Biography.

The Montessori Method of education, developed by Maria Montessori, is a child-centered educational approach based on scientific observations of children. Montessori's method has been used for over years in many parts of the world.

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